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Table of Contents
ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 103-108

Prevalence of gynaecological problems and their effect on working women


Asst Professor, Eashwari Bai Memorial CON, Secunderabad, India

Date of Web Publication11-Jun-2020

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


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  Abstract 


Diseases pertaining to the reproductive system of the women are becoming increasingly common because of modern ways of lifestyle. Modern women are forced to face higher level of stress as they are not only home makers, but are also working women. The first and foremost system in a female body to show systemic abnormal functioning under increased stress is the Endocrine system, which in turn affects the menstrual cycle. Thus menstrual abnormalities are becoming increasingly common among working women. A cross sectional study was under taken to assess the prevalence of gynecological problems and their effect on working women employed at selected industries of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. A structured questionnaire to assess the prevalence of gynecological problems and rating scale to assess their effects on their work performance was used for data collection. The women were selected by non-probability convenience sampling technique. Data were analyzed and interpreted based on descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings of the study revealed that 87% of women had dysmenorrhea, 86% had premenstrual syndrome, 72% had abnormal menstrual bleeding, 63% had genital infections. The mean percentage of effect of gynecological problems on working women was 56.13. The effect of these problems on their work performance were perceived to be moderate by 76%, severe by 16% and mild by 8% women. There were a significant association (p <.05) between the gynaecological problems and the selected socio-demographic variables.

Keywords: gynaecological problems, work performance, socio- demographic variables, working women


How to cite this article:
Beaulah P. Prevalence of gynaecological problems and their effect on working women. Indian J Cont Nsg Edn 2018;19:103-8

How to cite this URL:
Beaulah P. Prevalence of gynaecological problems and their effect on working women. Indian J Cont Nsg Edn [serial online] 2018 [cited 2021 May 8];19:103-8. Available from: https://www.ijcne.org/text.asp?2018/19/1/103/286488






  Introduction Top


India is a multifaceted society where no generalization could apply to the nation’s various regional, religious, social, and economic groups. Throughout history women have generally been restricted to the role of a home-maker; that of a mother and wife. The status of women and the role of women has taken a dramatic change in the past few years. In developing countries, women were treated as subordinates, and maids and were meant to take care of the sick, the old and children at home and, her health, vulnerable by nature had been ignored many a times. The new constitution of India adopted in 1950, accorded complete equality of rights to men and women. With the improvement in women education and employment they are employed in various sectors of society, but still they remain vulnerable in the area of health and wellness.

Women workers require special attention as sex related physiological functions and changes such as menstruation, parturition, menopause, and related gynaecological issues may decrease the capacity of women to cope with many work factors. Research studies in India have shown a varied prevalence of these gynaecological morbidities. A study in India related to prevalence of gynaecological problems in a specific community reported that overall 20.28% of the women had one or more gynaecological symptoms (Rasool, Ayub, & Samreen, 2017). Another study done by ICMR in 23 districts of India reported a varied prevalence between 3.558.9% (Kambo, Dhillon, Singh, Saxena, & Saxena, 2003).

The various factors influencing gynaecological problems include menstrual hygiene, sex hygiene, socioeconomic status, cultural habits and educational status of women. In a study by Mishra, Dasgupta and Ray (2016) on the relationship of sociocultural characteristics, menstrual hygiene practices, and gynaecological problems among adolescent girls in Eastern India, it was identified that menstrual hygiene remained a significant predictor of gynaecological problems. The results also indicated that girls of higher socioeconomic status had better menstrual hygiene practices which subsequently reduced the prevalence of gynaecological problems among them.

Occupational stress including high job strain, exhaustion, and stress related to working conditions has been identified as a risk factor for gynecologic pain. High job strain and poor job security were associated with an increased risk for dysmenorrhea. Compulsory overtime and exhaustion were associated with increased non-cyclic pelvic pain in working women (Sznajder et al., 2014).

Gynecological morbidities affect women’s physical health, sexual function, social role, psychological life, and religious life (Dheresa, Assefa, Berhane, Worku, & Mingiste, 2017). Studies conducted to identify relationship between psychological outcomes of women with gynaecological problems showed varied results. One in four women who were attending gynaecology clinics in two major hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon, reported significant psychological distress as assessed by a standardized questionnaire (Chaaya, Bogner, Gallo, & Leaf, 2003). In a study conducted on women with gynecological symptoms over a period of more than six months, results showed 63.5% incidence of psychiatric morbidity (Mendonsa & Appaya, 2010).

Reproductive morbidities have a huge impact on women’s social, economic, and psychological factors. In our country, married women are often reluctant to seek health care advice because of lack of privacy, lack of female doctor at the health facility, and cost of treatment. Women also may not share, seek assistance or treatment when they have gynaecological issues because of ignorance or based on their assumption that the issues are normal. It is essential, therefore, to explore and identify issues related to the women’s health.


  Objectives Top


  • To assess the prevalence of various gynecological problems among working women in selected industries in Hyderabad
  • To describe the effect of gynecological problems on the work performance of the women
  • To find the association between gynaecological problems and the selected socio-demographic variables


Hypotheses

H: There is a significant association between the prevalence of gynaecological problems and selected socio demographic variables among working women

Conceptual Frame work

The conceptual framework adopted for the study was Betty Neuman’s health care system theory. Neuman views the client as an open system consisting of central core of energy resources (Neuman & Fawcett, 2002). Within the core are five interacting variables namely physiological, psychological, socio-cultural, developmental, and spiritual. Client system stability can be affected by internal and external environmental factors. Stressors are any tension producing stimuli (problem/condition etc) capable of causing instability of the system by penetration of normal line of defense. Many known, unknown, and universal stressors exist. Stressors can be classifies into interpersonal, extra personal and intrapersonal.

The working women are represented as the basic structure the “client” with series of concentric rings surrounding the core system or the basic structure. The lines of structure protect the “client” the basic structure. Stressors are invaders and in this study marks the gynaecological problems as an intrapersonal stressor that invades the client system breaking the lines of resistance. The nursing actions can be divided into three different types of intervention modalities the primary, secondary, and tertiary. The primary interventions will include awareness of gynaecological problems, education about menstrual hygiene, and safe sexual practices. Secondary interventions includes identification of work related stressor, eliminating the stressor and activities such as reducing occupational stress, body mechanics at work, and appropriate rest periods. Tertiary intervention activities include referral to medical centres, diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Figure 1: Conceptual Framework based on Betty Neuman Systems Model (Neuman & Fawcett, 2002)

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  Methods Top


A cross sectional study was conducted at selected industries of Hyderabad. Convenience sampling technique was used for selecting hundred women, the population being employed women in industries. A structured questionnaire and rating scale were prepared for data collection and content validity was established. Pilot study was conducted and reliability of the tool was assessed using test-retest method. Data was collected, organized, tabulated analyzed and interpreted using descriptive and inferential statistics.


  Results and Discussion Top


[Table 1] shows the prevalence of gynecological problems among working women was that 87% had dysmenorrhea, 86% had premenstrual syndrome, 72% had abnormal menstrual bleeding, 63% had genital infections. In a similar study conducted to identify the prevalence of gynaecological problems in India in a specific community, out of the total women (504) studied 199 women reported gynaecological problems. The maj or problem reported by women in the study was menstrual disorders (25%) followed by symptoms related to reproductive tract infections, included increased vaginal discharge (58.97%), vaginal discharge with itching (17.95%) and vaginal discharge with lower abdominal pain (23.1%)(Abraham et al., 2014).
Table 1: Prevalence of Gynaecological Problems among Working Women

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[Table 2] shows that the effect of gynecological problems on their work performance was perceived to be moderate by majority of women (76%). The overall mean percentage of the effect of gynaecological problems on work was 56.13. In a study by Chaaya et al.(2003) it was identified that on average 50% of women attending gynaecology outpatient clinics were estimated to be distressed due to the illness. This could negatively affect their work performance. In a similar study done in Pakistan to assess the quality of life among women with symptoms of gynecological morbidities, almost 90% of women with uterovaginal prolapse reported an inability to complete their daily routine work. The other symptoms that affected the daily routine life of women were related to menstruation, with 42% and 52% of women suffering from dysmenorrhea and abnormal bleeding pattern respectively (Sami, Ali, & Osama, 2015).
Table 2: Distribution of Working Women according Effect of Gynecological Problems on Work Performance

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[Table 3] shows that the obtained Chisquare values are higher than the table value, hence the hypothesis is accepted and there is a significant association between the gynecological problems with the selected socio- demographic (p < .05 ). The Chi-square values were obtained to find the association of prevalence of dysmenorrhea, premenstrual syndrome, abnormal menstrual bleeding and genital infections with selected socio demographic variables of the working women. The study results were similar with the study of Unsal, Ayranci, Tozun, Arslan and Calik (2010) on prevalence of dysmenorrhea and its effect on quality of life among a group of female University students. The results of the study showed there has been high prevalence of gynecological problems and majority of the women perceived that they have a considerable effect of these problems on their work performance. The study indicates there is a need for creating awareness about gynecological health care and instill self-concern in women for their own health needs.
Table 3: Association of the Gynecological Problems with the Selected Variables

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Implications

This study gives us a baseline data about the most prevalent gynecological problems identified and to direct the nursing services according to the burden of the problems. Obstetrical nurse and occupational health nurse can understand the various effects of gynecological problems on working women. Health services need to be improved specially through providing in-service education to the health workers and conducting training programmes regarding prevention and management of gynecological problems. Emphasis should be laid on educating the ill-literate women.

Nurses need to be educated regarding the prevalence of gynaecological problems and their effects on the work Women health has to be stressed, especially of the working women and has to be included in syllabus. The nursing administrators along with occupational health nurse have to organize in-service educational programmes emphasizing on the regular health checkup of women workers and should educate them on prevention and management of gynecological problems. Based on the findings, the professionals and student nurses can conduct further studies on the knowledge of working women, attitudes and also prevention.


  Conclusion Top


Almost all the working women had complaints of at least one gynecological problem. The impact of gynecological problems on the work performance has been perceived to be moderate by majority (76%) of the working women. The factors such as treatment cost, quality of health care services, women’s education and autonomy influence health seeking behavior of a woman. It is therefore imperative for health care professionals to teach and to aid in early identification of gynaecological problems and to help women overcome the illness.

Conflicts of Interest: The author has declared no conflicts of interest.





 
  References Top

1.
Abraham, A., Varghese, S., Satheesh, M., Vijayakumar, K., Gopakumar, S., & Mendez, A. (2014). Pattern of gynecological morbidity, its factors and health seeking behavior among reproductive age group women in a rural community of Thiruvananthapuram District, South Kerala. Indian Journal Community Health, 26(3), 230-237.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Chaaya, M. M., Bogner, H. R., Gallo, J. J., & Leaf, P. J. (2003). The association of gynecological symptoms with psychological distress in women of reproductive age: A survey from gynecology clinics in Beirut, Lebanon. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 24(3), 175-184.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Dheresa, M., Assefa, N., Berhane, Y., Worku, A., & Mingiste, B. (2017). Gynecological morbidity among women in reproductive age: A systematic review and meta- analysis. Journal of Women’s Health Care, 6(367), 2167-0420.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Kambo, I. P., Dhillon, B. S., Singh, P., Saxena, B. N., & Saxena, N. C. (2003). Self-reported gynaecological problems from twenty three districts of India (An ICMR task force study). Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 28(2), 67-73.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Mendonsa, R. D., & Appaya, P. (2010). Psychiatric morbidity in outpatients of gynecological oncology clinic in a tertiary care hospital. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 52(4), 327.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Mishra, S. K., Dasgupta, D., & Ray, S. (2016). A study on the relationship of sociocultural characteristics, menstrual hygiene practices and gynaecological problems among adolescent girls in Eastern India. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 29(5).  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Neuman, B. M., & Fawcett, J. (2002). The Neuman Systems Model. Philadelphia : Pearson Education Incorporated.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Rasool, M., Ayub, T., & Samreen, S. (2017). Prevalence of self-reported gynaecological problems in a community of district Srinagar, Kashmir valley. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health, 4(9), 3105-3107.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Sami, N., Ali, T. S., & Osama, M. (2015). Quality of life among women with symptoms of gynecological morbidities: Results of a cross-sectional study in Karachi, Pakistan. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, 41(4), 608-614.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Sznajder, K. K., Harlow, S. D., Burgard, S. A., Wang, Y., Han, C., & Liu, J. (2014). Gynecologic pain related to occupational stress among female factory workers in Tianjin, China. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 20(1), 33-45.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Unsal, A., Ayranci, U., Tozun, M., Arslan, G., & Calik, E. (2010). Prevalence of dysmenorrhea and its effect on quality of life among a group of female University students. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, 115 (2), 138-145.  Back to cited text no. 11
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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Introduction
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