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Table of Contents
STUDENT SECTION
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 206-208

Assessment of aggressiveness amongst young adults during COVID-19 Lockdown, Tamil Nadu, India


1 B.Sc Nursing 3rd Year Student, Mental Health Nursing, Chettinad College of Nursing, Chettinad Academy of Research and Education, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Professor, Mental Health Nursing, Chettinad College of Nursing, Chettinad Academy of Research and Education, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Submission25-Aug-2020
Date of Decision14-May-2020
Date of Acceptance04-Dec-2020
Date of Web Publication19-Feb-2021

Correspondence Address:
Mrs. Rogina J S. Savarimuthu
Professor and HOD, Mental Health Nursing Department, Chettinnad College of Nursing, Chettinad Academy of Research and Education, Chennai
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/IJCN.IJCN_88_20

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  Abstract 

COVID-19 is a pandemic disease caused by coronaviruses. Feelings of frustration and agitation have increased aggression, trauma and violence due to lockdown. An e-survey was conducted to assess aggressiveness amongst young adults during lockdown in Tamil Nadu, India. The objectives were (1) to assess aggression amongst young adults during lockdown and (2) to associate aggression amongst young adults during lockdown with their demographic variables. Majority of the respondents reported moderate aggression and moderate level of physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger and hostility. Type of stay was found to be significantly associated with aggression in general and physical aggression in specific. Quality family time was found to be significantly associated with verbal aggression. Family type was found to be significantly associated with hostility.

Keywords: Aggression, COVID-19 pandemic, young adults


How to cite this article:
Dharshini M P, Kumar U N, Gnanaprakash A, Lakshmi S V, Cherian CM, S. Savarimuthu RJ. Assessment of aggressiveness amongst young adults during COVID-19 Lockdown, Tamil Nadu, India. Indian J Cont Nsg Edn 2020;21:206-8

How to cite this URL:
Dharshini M P, Kumar U N, Gnanaprakash A, Lakshmi S V, Cherian CM, S. Savarimuthu RJ. Assessment of aggressiveness amongst young adults during COVID-19 Lockdown, Tamil Nadu, India. Indian J Cont Nsg Edn [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Sep 25];21:206-8. Available from: https://www.ijcne.org/text.asp?2020/21/2/206/309863


  Introduction Top


COVID-19 is a pandemic disease caused by coronaviruses reported first from Wuhan, China in December 2019. The infection is rapidly spreading. It is a disease transmitted through droplets from an infected person and also considered to be airborne. The mortality rate is ever soaring. Moreover, the government encourages its people to stay at home, maintain social distance, wear a face mask, wash hands, use disinfectants, avoid public places and to avoid public gatherings.[1]

Coping with COVID-19

Management of the infection on the one hand and coping with the added burden of the negative effects of the infection on the other hand is the need of the hour. Many individuals are facing financial strain as they are unable to go out for work due to lockdown or underpaid as a result of the institution they are working is facing a financial slowdown. India has been under various levels of lockdown from March 2020 with various levels of relaxation throughout the country and frequent revisions on precautionary measures. The mass media – the television, the Internet, radio and various social media – give 24 × 7 updates on the pandemic. The individual eventually feels frustrated, hopeless and helpless – be it a normal healthy person, an infected client or a convalescent client. Their tolerance to negative events diminishes and even petty issues can trigger huge frustrations, anger rages, murders or suicides. Feelings of frustration and agitation have increased aggression, trauma and violence.[1],[2],[3]

Healthcare workers and clients have reported depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 outbreak. Restricted movements, decrease in the variety and availability of food items, loss of income and food availability, restricted movements, loss of income and investments have pushed individuals to change their food patterns, food utilisation, various methods adopted to decrease food wastage and provide food for the family. Everyone's daily routines and habits have been impacted due to the pandemic. Work from home, changes in family routines, food purchasing methods, cooking patterns, sleep patterns, eating habits and Internet use for study and work are a result of lockdown and the soaring incident of the pandemic. All these directly affect the mental health and quality of life both amongst healthy individuals, individuals with co-morbid medical conditions and individuals infected with COVID-19.[1],[3],[4],[5]

Objectives

  1. To assess aggression amongst young adults during lockdown
  2. To associate aggression amongst young adults during lockdown with demographic variables.



  Methods Top


Non-experimental descriptive research design was used in this study. The study was conducted amongst young adults (17–25 years) who responded to the e-survey. Using convenient sampling technique, young adults who fulfilled the sampling criteria for age were invited to participate in the study. Web-based link was created on Google Forms and shared through WhatsApp application. The initial participants were encouraged to share the link with others after submitting their responses. Participants were informed about the study and explained that the enrolment in the survey was voluntary. The data for this study were collected during the complete lockdown period.

Instruments

Demographic variables Proforma and the Aggression Questionnaire were used as survey tools. The Aggression Questionnaire is a standard tool to assess aggression developed by Buss and Perry in 1992.[6] It is a 29-item questionnaire 5-point scale used to quantify aggression into physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger and hostility.

The questionnaire is scored over a Likert scale and the scores range from 1 to 5. Score 1 represents extremely uncharacteristic of the individual, Score 2 represents somewhat uncharacteristic of the individual, Score 3 represents neither uncharacteristic nor characteristic of the individual, Score 4 represents somewhat characteristic of the individual and Score 5 represents extremely characteristic of the individual. Item no. 9 and 16 were reverse scored. The sum of the scores represents aggression scores. The questionnaire simultaneously assesses the four factors of aggression which are physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger and hostility [Table 1].
Table 1: Items and score distribution of the Aggression Scale

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Data collection

Data were collected through e-survey over a period of 1 week from 25 May to 30 May 2020. Web-based link was created on Google Forms with specific inclusion criteria (age 17–25 years and those who are currently pursuing their college education). An invitation was sent to reply to survey questionnaire. The link was shared through WhatsApp application. The participants after responding to the e-survey were encouraged to share the link with others to respond. In total, 131 responses were received. Due to faulty response technique, nine responses were invalid. The final sample size was 122.


  Results and Discussion Top


Majority of the respondents were 20 years old (36.1%), females (59.8%), residing in rural areas (59%), from nuclear families (69.7%), family income was between Rs. 7887 and Rs. 13,160/-month (20.5%), were day scholars during their school days (76.2%), parents spent quality time with them (94.3%), leisure time activity was playing mobile games (30.3%), first or second child for their parents (44%) and had education at private colleges (87.7%).

Majority of the respondents reported moderate aggression (79.5%) [Table 2].
Table 2: Aggression

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Majority of the respondents reported a moderate level of physical aggression (65.6%), verbal aggression (59.8%), anger (73.8%) and hostility (65.6%) [Table 3].
Table 3: Types of aggression

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Majority (93, 76.2%) of the respondents reported that they stayed along with their parents during their school days. Some (29, 23.8%) of the respondents reported that they stayed in the hostel during their school education. Type of stay was found to be significantly associated with aggression in general (P = 0.022) and physical aggression (P = 0.041) in specific. Poor quality family time was found to be significantly associated with verbal aggression (P = 0.055). Family type was found to be significantly associated with hostility (P = 0.016).

The pandemic is widely spreading causing many to be anxious and fearful. The persistent reports of incidence, mortality and morbidity associated with COVID-19 pandemic further increase fear. Young adults during the pandemic are engaged with online classes, a novel new method, which can cause stress. Stress, fear and anxiety can flare up for an individual to develop aggression. The individual person can become aggressive because of oneself or the aggressive nature of another person can be transferred as irritation and the individual can become aggressive. On both the occasions, aggression is maladaptive. The individuals should adopt measures to calm down, to let go off their negative feelings, concentrate on more positive emotions and feelings, channelise the negative energy constructively so as to be creative and conquer stress of the pandemic.


  Conclusion Top


Young adults reported being aggressive during the pandemic. Aggression needs to be identified at the earliest and intervened; else, it might lead to maladaptive results in the long run.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Bao Y, Sun Y, Meng S, Shi J, Lu L. 2019-nCoV epidemic: Address mental health care to empower society. Lancet 2020;395:e37-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Mazza M, Marano G, Lai C, Janiri L, Sani G. Danger in danger: Interpersonal violence during COVID-19 quarantine. Psychiatry Res 2020;289:113046.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Zhang Y, Ma ZF. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and quality of life among local residents in Liaoning province, China: A cross-sectional study. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020;17:2381.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Jribi S, Ben Ismail H, Doggui D, Debbabi H. COVID-19 virus outbreak lockdown: What impacts on household food wastage? Environ Dev Sustain 2020;22:3939-55.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Kumar M, Dwivedi S. Impact of coronavirus imposed lockdown on Indian population and their habits. Int J Sci Healthcare Res 2020;5:88-97.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Tremblay PF, Ewart LA. The buss and perry aggression questionnaire and its relations to values, the big five, provoking hypothetical situations, alcohol consumption patterns, and alcohol expectancies. Pers Individ Dif 2005;38:337-46.  Back to cited text no. 6
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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