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  Most popular articles (Since July 22, 2019)

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Data analysis in qualitative research
Vinitha Ravindran
January-June 2019, 20(1):40-45
Data analysis in qualitative research is an iterative and complex process. The focus of analysis is to bring out tacit meanings that people attach to their actions and responses related to a phenomenon. Although qualitative data analysis softwares are available, the researcher is the primary instrument who attempts to bring out these meanings by a deep engagement with the data and the individuals who share their stories. Although different approaches are suggested in different qualitative methods, the basic steps of content analysis that includes preparing the data, reading and reflection, coding, categorising and developing themes are integral to all approaches. The analysis process moves the researcher from describing the phenomenon to conceptualisation and abstraction of themes without losing the voice of the participants which are represented by the findings.
  10,164 981 1
Pre-intra-post-operative nursing care pathway: Fragments to fusion, isolation to integration
Dinesh Kumar Suganandam
July-December 2019, 20(2):87-91
Perioperative care refers to the care rendered during pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative (PIP) care of patients undergoing surgery. A patient undergoes these three phases in different environments and also experiences much stress and anxiety. The relationship between patient and nurse during these phases significantly improves the outcome. Although the operating room (OR) nurses play a pivotal role in patient care, they are often unseen. With the view of linking alleviation of stress and anxiety of the patient and the visibility of OR nurses and also the fragmented and isolated care provision, the PIP nursing care pathway was developed based on the perioperative dialogue model. This pathway helps in connecting the three phases of transition, which ensures the fusion and integration of care. Based on this model, the OR nurse makes a pre-operative visit and explains about the OR environment. The same nurse receives the patient in the OR and assists in surgery. The post-operative visit is also made by the same nurse. Adapting this pathway influences patient and OR nurse satisfaction to a great extent. It also empowers the OR nurses to facilitate managed care. Visibility of OR nurses is improved by this pathway because of their interaction and involvement in all the phases. With the support of management, this pathway can be successful in order to provide effective perioperative care, which is fused instead of fragmented and integrated instead of isolated.
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Edwards' syndrome: A case study
Cecilia Katasi
January-June 2019, 20(1):18-21
Edwards' syndrome, also known as trisomy 18, is a rare genetic disorder caused by the presence of extra 18th chromosome. Most babies with this condition die before or shortly after being born. Some children with this disorder rarely may survive beyond 1 year or into adulthood. Their growth and development is severely hampered. They have severe mental and life-threatening physical disabilities. A child with trisomy 18 is usually born with low birth weight, associated with heart defects and other abnormalities such as micrognathia, clenched fist with overlapping fingers, short sternum and club foot. There is no definitive treatment for babies with Edwards' syndrome. It is very challenging and difficult for parents to take care of a child with trisomy 18, so it is important for parents to get support from healthcare providers to provide the best quality of life for the child.
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Data collection methods in quantitative research
Vathsala Sadan
July-December 2017, 18(2):58-63
The information provided by the study participants on specific area of research called the data are very important that enable accurate information on the research work done by nurse researchers. Data collection methods are used to collect data in a systematic way. The researchers choose and use various data collection methods. They are broadly classified as self -reports, observation, and biophysiologic measures. This article highlights on the sources of data and on the various data collection techniques which include interviews, questionnaires, scales, category system and check lists, rating scales, and biophysiologic measures. It also analyses the advantages and disadvantages of each of these methods. Emphasis should be given on choosing appropriate method to collect accurate information which will lead to good quality research outcomes.
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Organophosphate poisoning: Overview, management and nursing care
Mary Jancy Joy, Bharathy Radhakrishnan, Meenakshi Sekar, Shirley David
July-December 2019, 20(2):131-140
Acute poisoning by organophosphates (OPs) for suicidal purpose poses a major problem, leading to high mortality in the developing countries. This occurs as OPs irreversibly bind to acetylcholinesterase, leading to the accumulation of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction and subsequent over-activation of cholinergic receptors in various parts of the body. Early identification of the signs and symptoms and prompt management enhance better outcomes reducing mortality. Atropine, oximes, neuroprotection and quality care remain the mainstay of treatment for OP poisoning and can reverse the life-threatening features of acute poisoning. Supportive treatment includes maintaining airway, breathing, circulation and decontamination of the poison. Nurses working in the critical care units play a vital role in monitoring the patient closely, providing quality nursing care and thereby preventing complications.
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A comparative study on quality of life of older adults
Lidziisa Mao, Kasturi Mondal, Madhushree Manna
January-June 2019, 20(1):73-77
Old age is a critical period which requires special attention in adapting to the changes of life. A descriptive comparative research study was conducted to assess the quality of life (QOL) and its components among the older adults staying in old-age home and staying with family in selected area of Kolkata, West Bengal. A total of 100 senior citizens above the age of 60 years were selected as samples for the study, of which 50 were from old-age home and 50 from those staying with family. Standardised tool Short-Form 36 Version 2 - Health Survey and Multidimensional Scale for perceived social support were used to measure the QOL. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. The study findings showed that there was a significant difference in the mean scores of QOL and the different domains of QOL of older adults staying in old-age home and family at (P < 0.05). Older adults staying in old-age home perceived better QOL as compared to those staying with family.
  4,118 334 1
Curriculum evaluation: Using the context, input, process and product (CIPP) model for decision making
Manoranjini Vishnupriyan
July-December 2017, 18(2):12-18
Evaluation is a systematic investigation of the value of a program. More specifically an evaluation is a process of delineating, obtaining, reporting, and applying descriptive and judgmental information about some object’s merit, worth, probity, and significance. A sound evaluation model provides a link to evaluation theory, a structure for planning evaluations, a framework for collaboration, a common evaluation language, a procedural guide, and standards for judging evaluation. This model tends to observe the obtained result than pretending to get the result as per the preset goal or the expected outcome of a curriculum. One evaluation model that is used widely to evaluate a curriculum or programme is the Context, Input, Process, and Product (CIPP) model. This article attempts to describe the CIPP model and explains the application of the model in a research project.
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Care of patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis
Blessing Reena Dason
January-June 2019, 20(1):11-17
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis formerly known as Churg–Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a multisystemic rare autoimmune disorder which results in restriction of blood flow to the vital organs, particularly the respiratory tract. CSS occurs in patients with a history of asthma or allergy. It has complex pathophysiology involving genetic factors, extrinsic agents and different cell types such as T-cells, oesinophils, B-cells, resident cells and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. Treatment mainly involves the administration of corticosteroids. Better knowledge about the disease condition and its treatment will assist nurses to educate the patients regarding the illness and prevention of further complication by adapting a healthy lifestyle such as regular exercise, Vitamin D supplement, diet control, smoking cessation and regular follow-up.
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Acute respiratory distress syndrome: A case presentation
Angel Rajakumari
July-December 2017, 18(2):32-38
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a major condition in an Intensive Care Unit. It was previously known as non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. It is caused by various conditions due to damage to the lung, but the main reason is sepsis. It damages the alveolar capillary membrane that leads to interstitial and alveolar edema, diffuse alveolar damage, refractory hypoxemia, and ventilation perfusion mismatch. The common clinical manifestation is dyspnea with diffuse infiltration in chest X-ray. The management of ARDS includes setting low tidal volume, high Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) and low plateau pressure. Prone positioning will improve perfusion to the patient and thereby increase PaO2/FiO2 ratio. The recent trend of High Frequency Oscillation Ventilation (HFOV) is used to manage ARDS.
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Conceptual models and theories: Developing a research framework
Beulah Premkumar, Shirley David, Vinitha Ravindran
January-June 2017, 18(1):48-53
Conceptual models and theories provide structure for research. Research without a theoretical base provides isolated information which may not be used or applied effectively. The challenge for nurse researchers is to identify a model or theory that would a best fit for their area of study interest. In this research series article the authors unravel the simple steps that can be followed in identifying, choosing, and applying the constructs and concepts in the models or theories to develop a research framework. A research framework guides the researcher in developing research questions, refining their hypotheses, selecting interventions, defining and measuring variables. Roy’s adaptation model and a study intending to assess the effectiveness of grief counseling on adaptation to spousal loss are used as an example in this article to depict the theory- research congruence.
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Knowledge and attitude regarding permanent pacemaker and the quality of life of patients after permanent pacemaker implantation
Deborah Snegalatha, Jasmin Anand, Bala Seetharaman, Bobby John
January-June 2019, 20(1):33-39
Cardiac pacing is an emerging lifesaving procedure that is being widely used in the recent times. Therefore, it is considered vital for the healthcare professionals to be aware of patients' knowledge and experience after the cardiac device implantation and also the impact these implanted devices have on their day-to-day life. This study was conducted with an aim to assess the knowledge and attitude of patients regarding permanent pacemakers (PMs) and their quality of life (QOL) after the permanent PM implantation. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used in this study. A total of seventy patients were chosen by total enumerative sampling technique among those patients attending the cardiology outpatient department, PM clinic and selected cardiology wards of a tertiary care centre in South India. A knowledge questionnaire, an attitude scale and RAND Short-Form-36 health survey were used to collect data. The mean age of the study patients was 61.71 ± 12.42 years, and 60% accounted for men. The median duration of implantation was 2.9 ± 5.21 years. Majority of the participants (54.3%) had moderately adequate knowledge, 55.7% of the participants had moderately favourable attitude and 46% of them experienced moderate QOL. There were a positive correlation between the knowledge of participants and their QOL (r = 0.340; P = 0.004) and a statistically significant positive correlation between the attitude of participants and their QOL (r = 0.559; P = 0.001). A significant association between attitude and age was found. Conscious effort must be taken to help patients cope better and experience good QOL through systematic teaching after the PM implantation. This will help patients to function maximally and live life to their best capacities in the family and society.
  2,738 278 2
Teaching angels to fly
Prashanth Padmini Venugopal
January-June 2019, 20(1):3-6
This article is concerned with the influence teachers of nursing have on the students. In particular, it talks about the concept of conventional discipline and the perception of nursing students regarding the type of disciplining. The article also focuses on identifying what causes misbehaviour in students and how to tackle various levels of indiscipline among nursing students. The aim of this article is to bring together and summarise the current student–teacher paradigm and how it needs to be changed using a selection of techniques that have been highly successful globally in improving student performance and resulting in a better outcome.
  2,735 275 -
Risk factors and knowledge of osteoporosis in rural pre-menopausal women
Anmery Varghese, Rajeswari Siva, Thomas V Paul, Kurusilappattu G Selvaraj
January-June 2019, 20(1):22-27
Osteoporosis is one of the major qualities of life-threatening diseases affecting women. It affects one in three women over 50 years of age. The aim of the study was to assess the risk factors and knowledge of osteoporosis among pre-menopausal women in selected rural population in Vellore district, Tamil Nadu. A cross-sectional descriptive research design was used to assess the risk factors and knowledge of osteoporosis. A total of 110 samples between 40 and 50 years of age were selected using convenient sampling technique. Data were collected using the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool® by World Health Organisation, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, Food Frequency Questionnaire, 24 h dietary recall and modified Osteoporosis Knowledge Assessment Tool. The mean age of the women in the study was 43.96 years. Majority (98.18%) of the women had high level of physical activity. The mean intake of calorie and calcium were 1630.81 kcal/day and 310 mg/day, respectively. Majority (86.36%) of the women had low calorie intake, and all the women (100%) had inadequate calcium intake. Most (92.73%) of the women had 1%–2% of 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fracture risk and 105 (95.45%) had <0.5% of 10-year probability of major hip fracture risk. Poor level of knowledge was found among (30.91%), 49.09% had fair knowledge, 17.27% had good knowledge and only 2.73% had very good knowledge regarding osteoporosis. There was a significant association between knowledge of women regarding osteoporosis and their education (P < 0.01) and monthly family income (P < 0.01). There was a significant association of 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fracture risk with calcium supplements (P < 0.01). There was a significant association of 10-year probability of hip fracture risk with occupation (P < 0.01). The findings of the study suggest that there is a need to educate women regarding prevention of osteoporosis. Public health strategies should be aimed at improving the calcium intake of women in this age group and to make appreciable lifestyle changes such as reduction in sedentary lifestyle and increased physical activity.
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Surgical management of thyroid gland disorders: Nursing care
Irene George, Nirmala M Emmanuel, Premila Lee, Esther G Asirvatham, Beaula R Jayasingh, Nicole Johnson
January-June 2017, 18(1):54-65
Thyroid gland dysfunction is present in a large number of the people. It is commonly seen in women and is sometimes associated with other endocrine problems. Dysfunction of the thyroid gland causes deranged metabolic functions of the body leading to altered energy levels in performing the daily tasks. Thyroid disorders should be identified at the earliest to prevent complications and to improve the physiological functions of the body. Majority of the disorders are associated with increase or decrease in the serum level of thyroid hormones. Enlargement of thyroid gland leads to respiratory distress, voice change, and dysphagia. It also causes body image disturbances in young patients. Though medications control the growth of the gland, surgery becomes an option to reduce the clinical effects of an enlarged gland. As thyroid is a highly vascular organ, precautions need to be taken before and after surgery to prevent hemorrhage. Nursing care involves preparation of the patient for surgery and meticulous postoperative care to prevent complications associated with the injury to parathyroid gland and laryngeal nerve. Early identification of complications will enable prompt management and improved quality of life of the patient. This article focuses on the various thyroid disorders, the clinical manifestations, assessment and diagnostic tests, the surgical management and the nursing care. The nursing care of patient undergoing thyroidectomy is discussed in detail.
  2,720 102 -
Translational research
Jemimah Jayakumar, Rogina JS Savarimuthu
January-June 2019, 20(1):7-10
Translational research (TR) aids in transforming research findings into practical actions. TR starts from observations and experiences of patterns and relationships in a researchers' world, which creates research questions. The research question is answered in stages of research starting from the laboratory to testing in clinical trials and then moving onto checking efficacy in patients and communities. Nurses utilising TR can improve quality of nursing care. The phases and stages of TR are discussed in this paper.
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Distress and coping in cancer patients experiencing chemotherapy-induced alopecia
Rini Wils, Anandha Ruby Jacob, Emily Susila Daniel, Raju Titus Chacko, S Reka
January-June 2019, 20(1):60-64
Alopecia is a major issue related to body image. Hair symbolises life and identity, plays an important role in social communication reflecting the social class, sex, profession and religious belief. Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is a condition that can affect psychosocial well-being and quality of life of a cancer patient resulting in anxiety, depression, a negative body image and lowered self-esteem. This study was designed to assess the level of distress and coping in cancer patients experiencing chemotherapy-induced alopecia. A descriptive study design was used, and a convenience sampling technique was used to select 150 subjects experiencing chemotherapy-induced alopecia in the oncology wards of a tertiary hospital. Chemotherapy-induced alopecia distress scale was used to assess the level of distress and chemotherapy-induced alopecia coping scale was used to assess various coping strategies among subjects. A high level of distress was experienced by 59.3% of the subjects and 60% of them had moderate coping. There was a weak negative (r = −0.083) and a weak positive (r = 0.238) correlation between the level of distress and passive and active coping strategies, respectively. The significant factors associated with distress were gender, financial source for treatment, diagnosis, type of chemotherapeutic drug, number of cycles offered and major coping strategy adopted. Factors such as number of children, family income, duration of illness and occupation of the patient showed significant association with the coping strategies. This study highlighted the need for the health-care team to be more sensitive to the less explored area of cancer treatment which would lead to an improved quality of life throughout the patient's illness process.
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Statistical analysis in nursing research
Grace Rebekah, Vinitha Ravindran
January-June 2018, 19(1):62-70
The word statistics and the process of statistical analysis induce anxiety and fear in many researchers especially the students. Difficult and different terminologies, complex calculations and expectations of choosing the right statistics are often daunting. However, it is well recognized that statistics play a key role in health and human related research. As it is not possible to study every human being, a representative group of the population is selected in research studies involving humans. Statistical analysis assists in arriving at right conclusions which then promotes generalization or application of findings to the whole population of interest in the study. This article attempts to articulate some basic steps and processes involved in statistical analysis.
  2,510 153 -
Gynaecological cancers
Diana David, Ebenezer E Benjamin
January-June 2019, 20(1):46-56
Gynaecological cancers are cancers of the female reproductive system, mainly including uterine/endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, vaginal cancer, vulvar cancer, fallopian tube cancer and trophoblastic tumour. Gynaecological cancers are often detected as a result of general screening procedures. Very few women are compliant with routine examinations; therefore, it is imperative that women are aware of some indicators of these cancers and get help at an early stage if needed. Some of these indicators are unusual bleeding, pain or pressure in the pelvis; unusual vaginal discharge; change in the toilet habits or itching, burning or soreness in the perineum. Treatment depends on the type of cancer, stage, location and general health of the woman. The decision for a single treatment or a combination becomes very challenging, especially when the woman is young and cancer is advanced. Nurses need to be knowledgeable about gynaecological cancers and proficient in caring for women with gynaecological cancers.
  2,336 184 1
A caring framework for teaching to care
Vinitha Ravindran
January-June 2019, 20(1):1-2
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Factors causing stress in midwifery students
Anne Jarone, Ebenezer E Benjamin
January-June 2019, 20(1):65-68
Stress is an emotional and physical strain caused by our response to pressure from the outside world. It is a specific response by the body to a stimulus that disturbs normal functioning. Students are subjected to different kinds of stressors such as the pressure of academics with an obligation to succeed. Students also face social, emotional, physical and family problems. Stress results from the interaction between stressors. Nursing students are likely to experience more stress than their friends and colleagues enrolled in other programmes. This study was conducted among the midwifery students enrolled in the diploma nursing and BSc nursing courses. A self-administered stress questionnaire prepared by the investigator was used to assess the factor causing stress among midwifery students. The study revealed that majority of midwifery students of both diploma and BSc nursing reported high stress related to clinical experience and interpersonal reasons.
  2,218 200 -
Job stress among nurses
J Hepsi Bai, Vinitha Ravindran
July-December 2019, 20(2):92-96
It is well known that nursing as a profession is considered stressful. Multiple factors such as patient-care demands, professional issues, work environment, organisation policies and procedures are associated with job stress in nursing. Personal- and family-related issues also play a vital role in causing stress for nurses. Job stress can inadvertently affect patient care as well as health of nurses. Appropriate coping strategies are needed to mitigate job stress and ensure optimal patient-care outcomes. Organisational and nurse supervisor's support is essential to enable nurses to cope with job stress. In this article, the prevalence and associated factors of job stress and the general coping strategies adopted by nurses are discussed.
  2,122 244 1
Sampling and methods of data collection in qualitative research
Bala Seetharaman
July-December 2016, 17(2):41-47
Qualitative research deals with data collected in narrative form which requires an in-depth knowledge in selecting appropriate sampling techniques and data collection methods. Unlike quantitative studies, non- probability sampling techniques are used in qualitative studies to enhance information richness. Sample size is not determined using statistical formula, but is based on the principle of data saturation and the type of qualitative study methodology. Qualitative studies adopt flexible data collection plans which may evolve as the study progresses. Observation, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions are the primary data collection methods in qualitative studies.
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Cultural practices and beliefs regarding newborn care in South India
Mary Jenifer, Ebenezer Ellen Benjamin
July-December 2019, 20(2):106-110
The days and weeks following child birth are a critical phase in the lives of mothers and newborn babies. According to the WHO, 45% of under-five deaths occur during the 1st month of life. Several factors contribute to neonatal mortality in India and one of the reasons is following harmful newborn care practices such as applying different unsterile material on the umbilical cord and instilling liquids and oils in the ears and nose. These practices are often associated with the cultural beliefs. The objective of this focused ethnography study was to bring forth a description of the cultural aspects of newborn care in South India and identify cultural themes related to newborn care which will help health professionals to understand and tailor interventions in the health-care setting. Three focus group discussions were conducted in the post-natal units of a tertiary hospital in South India using a semi-structured interview guide. Data from translated interviews were coded and categorised to identify cultural themes. Themes such as rituals, beliefs, resistance and adaptation and solutions evolved from the study. The study was successful in highlighting cultural practices and their meanings, which provides an insight for nurses on how to deliver educational messages, considering the cultural values and beliefs of the mothers.
  2,167 156 -
Knowledge of antenatal women regarding pregnancy induced hypertension
Symborian Anita
January-June 2018, 19(1):109-112
Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH) is one of the major causes of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Although early detection of PIH is essential, knowledge on care and prevention of complications is utmost to prevent life threatening complications in the mother and child. This study was conducted with the aim to assess the knowledge of antenatal women regarding PIH. Using convenience sampling technique 100 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at a tertiary care centre in Chhattisgarh were included in the study. A structured interview schedule was used to collect data. The study findings revealed that about 14% of pregnant women had good knowledge, 55% had average knowledge, and 31% had poor knowledge regarding PIH. The study also revealed that there was a significant association of knowledge with education, occupation, family history of hypertension, family history of PIH and parity of pregnant women. Based on the findings, a health education leaflet was prepared covering the different aspects of pregnancy induced hypertension and given to the subjects.
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Self-efficacy of patients with stoma in performing stoma care
Lyshy Mariam Thomas, Ida Nirmal
January-June 2019, 20(1):57-59
Persons with stoma (ostomates) have to contend with substantial changes in bowel functions, dietary habits and body image. Adjusting to these changes could be challenging. Effective management of stoma can help this process. A quantitative study was conducted to assess the self-efficacy of stoma care among patients with stoma. Within a descriptive research design, consecutive sampling was used to recruit ostamates for the study. Data were collected using modified stoma self-efficacy scale. Analysis revealed that 56% had moderate self-efficacy and 43.5% had high self-efficacy. Further studies are needed to generalise the findings. Nurses need to be aware that self-efficacy of stoma care among ostomates can influence their quality of life.
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